Overall self-confidence, self-confidence in mathematics, and sex-role stereotyping in relation to salivary free testosterone in university women

Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Oct;91(2):391-401. doi: 10.2466/pms.2000.91.2.391.


This study investigated in 40 young university women the possible relationships between levels of testosterone and specific measures of overall self-confidence and self-confidence in approaching mathematics. Correlations of -.43 and -.49 with each measure of self-confidence, respectively, and level of testosterone were found in the portion of the sample displaying normal ovulatory function. There was no correlation (r=.02) between the measures of mathematics and overall self-confidence. 19 women did not display normal ovulatory function. The only significant result for the full sample was a significant correlation of -.73 between scores on the Bem Sex Role Inventory Masculinity and overall self-confidence. The reasons for the high anovulatory percentage are not clear, nor are the associations which anovulation might have with either hormonal levels or the personality characteristics in question.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anovulation / physiopathology
  • Anovulation / psychology
  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • Humans
  • Mathematics*
  • Problem Solving / physiology*
  • Saliva / metabolism*
  • Self Concept*
  • Stereotyping*
  • Students / psychology
  • Testosterone / metabolism*


  • Testosterone