Signals mediated by activation of the small GTPase Ras play an essential role both in thymocyte development and in TCR-mediated activation of mature T cells. Given the critical requirement of Ras signaling pathways in thymocyte development, and recent indications that Rap1 may negatively regulate Ras-dependent signaling pathways, we examined the possible involvement of Rap1 in thymocyte TCR signaling. We find that Rap1 and proposed regulators of Rap1 (the proto-oncogene product Cbl, Crk family adaptor proteins, and the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G) are expressed at equivalent levels in both double-negative and double-positive murine thymocytes. Rap1 was transiently activated following TCR stimulation of both total thymocytes and purified double-positive thymocytes, and this activation correlated with tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl and Cbl association with CrkL. TCR-dependent Rap1 activation was enhanced by co-stimulation through CD28 and could be mimicked by treatment of thymocytes with phorbol ester and calcium. In contrast to mature peripheral T lymphocytes, Rap1 stimulation by CD3 ligation in thymocytes did not require intracellular calcium mobilization. Intriguingly, we found a clear elevation of activated Rap1 in thymocytes undergoing positive selection, suggesting a functional role for Rap1 in thymocyte development and selection.