Hydrogenases, oxygen-sensitive enzymes that can make hydrogen gas, are key to the function of hydrogen-producing organelles (hydrogenosomes), which occur in anaerobic protozoa scattered throughout the eukaryotic tree. Hydrogenases also play a central role in the hydrogen and syntrophic hypotheses for eukaryogenesis. Here, we show that sequences related to iron-only hydrogenases ([Fe] hydrogenases) are more widely distributed among eukaryotes than reports of hydrogen production have suggested. Genes encoding small proteins which contain conserved structural features unique to [Fe] hydrogenases were identified on all well-surveyed aerobic eukaryote genomes. Longer sequences encoding [Fe] hydrogenases also occur in the anaerobic eukaryotes Entamoeba histolytica and Spironucleus barkhanus, both of which lack hydrogenosomes. We also identified a new [Fe] hydrogenase sequence from Trichomonas vaginalis, bringing the total of [Fe] hydrogenases reported for this organism to three, all of which may function within its hydrogenosomes. Phylogenetic analysis and hypothesis testing using likelihood ratio tests and parametric bootstrapping suggest that the [Fe] hydrogenases in anaerobic eukaryotes are not monophyletic. Iron-only hydrogenases from Entamoeba, Spironucleus, and Trichomonas are plausibly monophyletic, consistent with the hypothesis that a gene for [Fe] hydrogenase was already present on the genome of the common, perhaps also anaerobic, ancestor of these phylogenetically distinct eukaryotes. Trees where the [Fe] hydrogenase from the hydrogenosomal ciliate Nyctotherus was constrained to be monophyletic with the other eukaryote sequences were rejected using a likelihood ratio test of monophyly. In most analyses, the Nyctotherus sequence formed a sister group with a [Fe] hydrogenase on the genome of the eubacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Thus, it is possible that Nyctotherus obtained its hydrogenosomal [Fe] hydrogenase from a different source from Trichomonas for its hydrogenosomes. We find no support for the hypothesis that components of the Nyctotherus [Fe] hydrogenase fusion protein derive from the mitochondrial respiratory chain.