In order to clarify smokers' characteristics by "Stages of Change" based on Prochaska's transtheoretical model, we conducted cross-sectional and logitudinal studies with biochemical markers of smoking and smoking habits. In a workplace-based sample of 277 male smokers, we examined cross-sectionally the relationships between stages and biochemical markers of smoking which include expired carbon monoxide concentrations and urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations, and smoking habits which include the number of cigarettes smoked per day, yields of cigarettes, inhalation patterns, time to first morning cigarette, and quit attempts in the past. Additionally we examined longitudinally the relationship between stages and expired carbon monoxide concentrations, the number of cigarettes, and yields of cigarettes. In the cross-sectional study there were significant differences among stages on expired carbon monoxide concentrations (P = 0.006), urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations (P = 0.049), the number of cigarettes smoked per day (P = 0.001), and yields of cigarettes (P = 0.042) using analyses of variance. There were also significant differences among stages on time to first morning cigarette (P = 0.018) and quit attempts in the past (P < 0.001) using chi-square tests. In the longitudinal study for each level of elevation in stage during a one-year period, expired carbon monoxide concentrations decreased on an average of 2.3 ppm (P = 0.125) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day decreased on an average of 2.8 cigarettes per day (P = 0.07). However, the yields of cigarettes did not change during the one-year period.