Objectives: To characterize the vascular risk factor profiles in different subtypes of ischemic stroke.
Material and methods: The study population consisted of 1473 consecutive ischemic stroke patients collected in a prospective stroke registry. The prevalence of vascular risk factors in each stroke subtype was analyzed independently and in comparison with other subtypes of stroke pooled together by means of univariate analysis and logistic regression models.
Results: Hypertension was present in 52% of patients followed by atrial fibrillation in 27% and diabetes in 20%. The pattern of risk factors associated with atherothrombotic stroke included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63), hypertension (OR = 2.55), diabetes (OR = 2.26), transient ischemic attack (OR = 1.61), and age (OR = 1.03). Previous cerebral hemorrhage (OR = 4.72), hypertension (OR = 4.29), obesity (OR = 2.45), and diabetes (OR = 1.73) were strong predictors of lacunar stroke. In the case of cardioembolic stroke, atrial fibrillation (OR = 22.24), valvular heart disease (OR = 10.97), and female gender (OR = 1.66) occurred more frequently among patients with this stroke subtype than among the other stroke subtypes combined.
Conclusion: Different potentially modifiable vascular risk factor profiles were identified for each subtype of ischemic stroke, particularly COPD in the case of atherothrombotic stroke and previous cerebral hemorrhage and hypertension in the case of lacunar infarction.