Purpose: (1) To determine the toxicity of an intensified postoperative adjuvant regimen for periampullary adenocarcinoma (pancreatic and nonpancreatic) utilizing concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (LV), dipyridamole (DPM), and mitomycin-C (MMC) combined with split-course locoregional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to 50 Gy. This was followed by 4 cycles of the same chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy. (2) To determine preliminary estimates of the overall and disease-free survival associated with the use of this regimen. (3) To compare the toxicities and early survival results of patients treated with the current regimen to those of patients who completed our prior trial of concurrent chemoradiation infusion with 5-FU/LV chemotherapy and regional nodal and prophylactic hepatic irradiation.
Methods: Postpancreaticoduodenectomy, patients received every 4 weeks bolus administration of 5-FU, (400 mg/m(2)), and LV, (20 mg/m(2), Days l-3), DPM (75 mg p.o., 4 times per day, Days 0-3, and every 8 weeks), MMC, (10 mg/m(2); maximum of 20 mg, Day l during EBRT). This was followed by 4 months of the same chemotherapy, beginning 1 month following the completion of EBRT. EBRT consisted of split-course 5000 cGy/20 fractions with a 2-week planned rest after the first 10 fractions (2500 cGy).
Results: From 4/96 to 6/99, 45 patients were enrolled and treated. Their experience constitutes the basis of this analysis. There were 29 patients with pancreatic cancer and 16 with nonpancreatic periampullary cancer. Seventeen patients had tumors of 3 cm or more, and 39 patients had at least 1 histologically involved lymph node. Thirteen patients had a histologically positive margin of resection. The mean time to start of treatment was 63 days following surgery. During chemoradiation therapy there were no Grade 3 or worse nonhematologic toxicities and 47% Grade 3 or Grade 4 hematologic toxicities of short duration. Following chemoradiation, during chemotherapy treatment only, there was one Grade 3 hepatic and one Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity which was nondebilitating (2% each case) and 42% Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity. There were 2 episodes of neutropenic fever requiring admission and no treatment-related mortalities. One patient developed a mild case of HUS, which responded to standard management. One patient developed persistent shortness of breath (nondebilitating), and another patient had occasional dyspnea on exertion, both occurring after all therapy. The majority of patients complained of increased fatigue (Grade 1-2), greatest during the combined therapy and improving post all treatment. As of 6/23/99, 20 of 45 patients have relapsed, 13 in the liver. Twelve patients have died. Median follow-up for surviving patients is 14.3 months. Disease-free survival at 12 months following surgery is 66% (as compared to 25% in our prior study), and the median disease-free survival is 17 months (as compared to 8. 3 months in our prior study). Median survival has not yet been reached, but will be greater than 17 months.
Conclusion: With a 14.3-month median follow-up, acute toxicity has been acceptable and manageable. Observed relapses were seen 9-13 months following surgical resection. Early survival analysis suggests a trend toward increased median disease-free survival (8.3 vs. 17 months), especially for patients with nonpancreatic periampullary adenocarcinoma.