Home smoking restrictions: which smokers have them and how they are associated with smoking behavior

Nicotine Tob Res. 1999 Jun;1(2):153-62. doi: 10.1080/14622299050011261.


Home smoking restrictions have primarily been promoted as a means of protecting non-smokers from secondhand tobacco smoke. However, research suggests that smokers who live in smoke-free homes may modify their smoking behavior. Population-based survey data from California (n = 8904) were used to confirm this association and to examine demographic and social characteristics of smokers who reported home smoking restrictions. Report of a recent quit attempt and intention to quit were associated with family preference that the smoker not smoke, with home smoking restrictions appearing to be a concrete expression of this social pressure. In contrast, light smoking (< 15 cigarettes/day) was negatively related to family preference (light smokers may not offend non-smokers) but very positively related to the level of home smoking restrictions. Additionally, smoke-free homes appear to prolong time to relapse following cessation. Male smokers were more likely than females to report smoke-free homes, and such reports decreased with age. While Hispanics and Asians were more likely to report smoke-free homes than Non-Hispanic whites, African Americans were less likely to report them. After adjusting for demographics, smokers were nearly 6 times more likely to report smoke-free homes if they lived with a non-smoking adult and child compared to when there was no child or adult non-smoker in the household, and over 5 times more likely to report a smoke-free home if they believed in the harmfulness of secondhand smoke. Tobacco Control efforts to promote smoke-free homes may give family members leverage to encourage smokers to quit, and to modify smokers' behavior in ways that would help them quit and stay quit.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Actuarial Analysis
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • California / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environment, Controlled*
  • Family / psychology*
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Reinforcement, Social*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology