In a non-isotonic environment, cells can shrink or swell and return to their normal shape by activating ion transport pathways. Changes in intracellular pH (pHi) after osmotic stress have been identified in several cells. In order to study the mechanisms that regulate cytosolic pH of rat mast cells in a hypertonic medium, we used the pH sensitive dye, BCECF. Under these hypertonic conditions, pHi undergoes an alkalinization following an initial acidification. The alkalinization is mediated by a Na+/H+ exchanger, since it is inhibited by amiloride and lack of extracellular sodium. Under these conditions, the alkalinization is increased with the PKC activators, TPA and OAG, and partially blocked with trifluoperazine, an unspecific protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (Ca2+/CaM K) inhibitor. There is also an anion exchanger, blocked with DIDS but not activated by PKC, that participates in the observed alkalinization. However, Na+/H+ exchanger is the main mechanism involved in the alkalinization of pHi of mast cells in a hyperosmotic environment.