Spontaneous hydronephrosis in KK-A(Y) mice was studied using light and electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of resin casts to evaluate micro vascular changes in the kidney. The renal parenchyma was extremely thin as a result of tubular atrophy. Histologically, varying degrees of glomerulosclerosis were observed. Ultrastructurally, marked thickenings of the glomerular basal lamina, an increase in mesangial cells and matrix, and marked effacement of foot processes were observed. In resin casts, a marked reduction in number of glomeruli was evident. The capillaries were thin, strangulated and tom-off to varying degrees in severely affected glomeruli. In the medulla, the three-dimensional capillary network running along the tubules was lost and changed to a two-dimensional vascular bed. Despite severe hydronephrosis, the glomerular capillary network was relatively well preserved, being either slightly or moderately injured in approximately 60% of surviving glomeruli.