Human C1qR(P) is a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein that is the human C1q receptor/receptor component that in vitro mediates enhancement of Fc- and C3b-mediated phagocytosis. A human genomic clone and a murine genomic clone that is 73% identical in sequence with the coding region for human C1qR(P) cDNA have been isolated. Chromosomal localization of the human and murine gene demonstrates that these genes are syntenic. Murine cell lines of diverse myeloid origins are shown to respond to interaction of C1q with the enhancement of phagocytosis similar to that seen previously in human peripheral blood monocytes. Northern blot, RT-PCR, Western blot and FACS analyses demonstrated that mC1qR(P) is expressed in these murine myeloid cell lines, but not in a mouse epithelial cell line, similar to the cell type expression of the human gene product. A polyclonal antibody to a peptide sequence common to the deduced sequence from the both murine and human C1qR(P) inhibited the enhancement of phagocytosis response to C1q when cells were permeabilized to permit access of the antibody to the intracellular milieu. These data support the postulate that the identified murine and human genes are homologs, confirm the previously predicted intracellular location of the C-terminus of the molecule, and indicates the necessary role of this intracellular domain in transducing the signal that leads to enhancement of phagocytic function.