This article reviews recent findings on androgen receptor expression, structure, and function in carcinoma of the prostate. In this decade, it became clear that androgen-resistant prostate cancers contain androgen receptors and, therefore, regulation of androgen receptor expression and function receives considerable attention. The article summarizes findings on regulation of androgen receptor expression by androgens, growth factors, and protein kinase A activators. In addition, modulation of function of the wild-type and mutant AR is discussed. Androgen receptor functional activity is up-regulated by androgens and nonsteroidal activators, which influence transcription of androgen receptor-regulated genes in a cell type-dependent manner. This study also contains a chapter on androgen receptor-associated proteins, coactivators, and coreppressors and their possible role in pathological situations.
Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.