A prospective study of age and lifestyle factors in relation to community-acquired pneumonia in US men and women

Arch Intern Med. 2000 Nov 13;160(20):3082-8. doi: 10.1001/archinte.160.20.3082.


Background: Information is limited on risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in free-living populations. We examined the associations of age, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), weight change during adulthood, physical activity, and alcohol intake with risk of CAP among men and women.

Methods: The study population included 26,429 men aged 44 to 79 years from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 78,062 women aged 27 to 44 years from the Nurses' Health Study II. Information was collected by biennial mailed questionnaires and the main outcome was physician-diagnosed incident pneumonia.

Results: There were 290 cases among men (6 years of follow-up) and 305 cases among women (2 years of follow-up). Age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, and alcohol intake were taken into account in the multivariate logistic regression model. There was a dose-response relation between aging and risk of CAP among men. Compared with never smokers, current smoking was associated with risk of CAP among men (relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.14) and women (relative risk, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.10). In addition, BMI was directly associated with an increased risk of CAP among women. Compared with the participants who maintained their weight during adulthood, the risks were nearly 2-fold higher among men and women who gained 40 lb or more (> or =18 kg). The risk of CAP decreased with increasing physical activity among women. We also found no significant relation between alcohol intake and risk of CAP among men and women.

Conclusions: Smoking and excessive weight gain are risk factors for CAP among men and women, and physical activity was inversely associated with risk of CAP only among women. The incidence of CAP could possibly be decreased by lifestyle factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Community-Acquired Infections / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumonia / epidemiology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology