Potential for inhibition of CYP3A activity by simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, was evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects who received placebo or 80 mg of simvastatin, the maximal recommended dose, once daily for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, an intravenous injection of 3 microCi [14C N-methyl]erythromycin for the erythromycin breath test (EBT) was coadministered with a 2 mg oral solution of midazolam. The values for percent 14C exhaled during the first hour (for EBT) and the pharmacokinetic parameters of midazolam (AUC, Cmax, t1/2) were not affected following multiple once-daily oral doses of simvastatin 80 mg. The 95% confidence interval was 0.97 to 1.18 for EBT and 0.99 to 1.23 for midazolam AUC. In addition, the total urinary recoveries of midazolam and its 1'-hydroxy metabolites (free plus conjugate) obtained from both treatments were not statistically different (p > 0.200). These data demonstrate that multiple dosing of simvastatin, at the highest recommended clinical dose, does not significantly alter the in vivo hepatic or intestinal CYP3A4/5 activity as measured by the commonly used EBT and oral midazolam probes.