Substantial advancements have been made in our understanding of the complex replication cycle of, and immunopathology associated with HIV infection as well as the drugs used to treat the disease. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors remain the cornerstones of current antiviral treatment modalities. Unfortunately, their longterm use often leads to adverse reactions and the emergence of virus mutants with decreased susceptibility to therapeutic agents. In addition to viral resistance, prolonged antiviral treatment may affect metabolic changes in the host cells that can diminish the efficacy of the treatment. Thus, both viral and cellular resistance mechanisms must be considered in the context of failing antiviral chemotherapy. This review article concerns the intracellular pharmacology of antiviral nucleoside analogues in human lymphoid cells and the possible impact of a newly identified nucleotide transporter on drug resistance.