Clinical and neuroradiological aspects of Sneddon's syndrome and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A follow-up study

Neurol Sci. 2000 Jun;21(3):157-64. doi: 10.1007/s100720070091.


We performed a study to investigate differences and similarities between patients with Sneddon's syndrome and those with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAS), by clinical follow-up, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography. Nine patients with Sneddon's syndrome and 11 patients with PAS were assessed at diagnosis and followed for a mean of 6 years. The clinical and MRI findings indicated that Sneddon's syndrome and PAS are distinct entities. Patients with Sneddon's syndrome had a progressive clinical course with increasing disability and cognitive deterioration; patients with PAS had a more benign course. Infarcts in territories of the main cerebral arteries were frequent in PAS, while leukoaraiosis and small lacunar infarcts were more common in Sneddon's syndrome. In 3 of 7 women initially diagnosed with PAS, the diagnosis was changed to systemic lupus erythematosus during follow-up. Differential diagnosis of Sneddon's syndrome and PAS is important, as early therapy is effective for the latter, more benign, condition.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / diagnostic imaging*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Radiography
  • Sneddon Syndrome / diagnostic imaging*