Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is defined as length and/or weight below the 10th percentile. Etiology and, consequently, long-term outcome are extremely heterogeneous with chromosomal abnormalities found in up to 7%. Recently, uniparental disomy (UPD), i.e. the inheritance of both homologues of one pair of chromosomes from only one parent, was found in an increasing number of children with IUGR. Particularly, UPD of chromosome 7 was found in up to 10% of patients with IUGR and/or a phenotype of primordial growth retardation or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), but also UPD of chromosomes 2, 6, 14, 16, 20, and 22 was reported in single cases with IUGR. To evaluate impact and relevance of UPD in children with IUGR we investigated 23 sporadic cases with IUGR subsequently diagnosed as primordial growth retardation (n = 13) or SRS (n = 10) by molecular methods for UPD of chromosomes 2, 6, 14, 16, 20, and 22. No instance of UPD was found. Inheritance of all chromosomes investigated was biparental in all cases. Therefore, we conclude that UPD of these chromosomes is not a major cause of IUGR.