Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) gene polymorphisms located in the 5' region and in exon 3, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype were determined in 100 Japanese patients affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We matched 246 controls for age and found no association between the polymorphism located in the 5' region of the LRP gene. The distribution of LRP exon 3 genotypes and alleles did not differ between AD and the control groups. However, the frequency of T allele in the Alzheimer's group having APOE-epsilon4 was lower than that in the control group having APOE-epsilon4, but it was only marginally significant (p = 0.022). Age of onset was significantly younger in the patients with CC genotype than those carrying the T allele (p = 0.03), and this trend was more evident among non-APOE-epsilon4 carriers (p = 0.008). These results support the possibility that ApoE and LRP may contribute to the development of AD.