Frequent hypermethylation of CpG islands and loss of expression of the 14-3-3 sigma gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma

Oncogene. 2000 Nov 2;19(46):5298-302. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203898.


The 14-3-3 sigma gene has been implicated in G2/M cell cycle arrest by p53. Frequent inactivation of the 14-3-3 sigma gene by hypermethylation of CpG islands has recently been reported in human breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine the methylation status of CpG islands of the 14-3-3 sigma gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The methylation status of the 14-3-3 sigma gene was evaluated in four normal liver tissues and 19 paired specimens of carcinoma and adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues using bisulfite-single strand conformation polymorphism (bisulfite-SSCP), a combination of sodium bisulfite modification and fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-SSCP. The 14-3-3 sigma protein expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Hypermethylation of CpG islands of the 14-3-3 sigma gene was detected in 89% (17/19) of the HCC tissues but not in any of the four normal liver tissues. All of the 14 methylation-positive HCC samples analysed by immunohistochemistry showed loss of 14-3-3 sigma expression, while both of the methylation-negative HCC samples retained the expression, and a significant correlation was found between methylation and loss of expression. Lower levels of methylation were detected in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (6/16 in cirrhotic tissues and 1/3 in chronic hepatitis tissues), but the 14-3-3 sigma expression was retained in all of these tissues. In a methylation-positive HCC cell line, HLE, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)-induced demethylation of CpG islands led to reactivation of gene expression, indicating that hypermethylation plays a causal role in inactivation of the 14-3-3 sigma gene in HCC. Hypermethylation and the resulting loss of expression of the 14-3-3 sigma gene corresponds to one of the most common abnormalities reported to date in HCC, suggesting their crucial role in the development and/or progression of HCC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Azacitidine / pharmacology
  • Base Sequence
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemistry
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • CpG Islands / genetics*
  • Cytidine Triphosphate / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cytidine Triphosphate / pharmacology
  • Cytoplasm / chemistry
  • DNA Methylation* / drug effects
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Gene Silencing* / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Liver / chemistry
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / chemistry
  • Liver Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational
  • Sulfites
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / analysis
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / genetics*


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Sulfites
  • Cytidine Triphosphate
  • 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Azacitidine
  • sodium bisulfite