Here we report the molecular cloning of the chicken (Gallus gallus) neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor Y2, the first non-mammalian Y2 receptor. It displays 75-80% identity to mammalian Y2 and has a surprisingly divergent cytoplasmic tail. Expression of the receptor protein in a cell line showed that the receptor did not bind the mammalian Y2 selective antagonist BIIE0246. Furthermore, porcine [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY, which binds poorly to mammalian Y2, exhibited an unexpectedly high affinity for chicken Y2. In situ hybridisation revealed expression in the hippocampus. Thus, the chicken Y2 receptor exhibits substantial differences with regard to sequence and pharmacological profile in comparison to mammalian Y2 receptors, while the expression pattern in the central nervous system resembles that observed in mammals.