The structure of the olfactory bulb in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis (stages 54-56) was studied using axon tracing (with biocytin or low-weight dextran) and immunocytochemical techniques. Filling the olfactory nerve with biocytin made the nerve layer and the glomeruli visible. Dye injections into the glomerular layer labeled the lateral olfactory tract. Vice versa, dye injections into the lateral olfactory tract made mitral cells and their glomerular branching patterns visible. Anti-GABA antiserum stained periglomerular and granule cells, while the olfactory nerve and mitral cells were labeled by antiglutamate antiserum. We describe the layering, the numbers of cells and glomeruli, and their localization in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb.