The study aim was to investigate the association of cardiovascular risk factors with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in an 8-year prospective population study in nondiabetic subjects. Cardiovascular risk factors of 271 subjects aged 16 to 61 years were measured at baseline, and insulin sensitivity and acute-phase insulin secretion were assessed by an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and Bergman's minimal model 8 years later. In logistic regression analysis, baseline high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (P < .001 and P = .006, respectively), total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and VLDL triglycerides (P = .004, P = .048, and P = .002, respectively), apolipoprotein A1 (P = .010), and uric acid (P < .001) were associated with insulin resistance after adjustment for age and the body mass index (BMI). Systolic blood pressure (P = .042) and VLDL cholesterol (P = .018) were associated with impaired insulin secretion after adjustment for age and the BMI. This 8-year longitudinal study demonstrates that dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and uric acid are associated with insulin resistance, whereas high systolic blood pressure and VLDL cholesterol are associated with impaired first-phase insulin secretion.