Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) is one of the small actin-binding proteins that regulate actin dynamics in cells. We have isolated two cDNA clones, PhADF1 and PhADF2, encoding ADF from cDNA libraries constructed from petal protoplast cultures and flowers of Petunia hybrida. PhADF1 and PhADF2 encode polypeptides of 139 and 143 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 16.04 and 16.51kDa, respectively. Co-sedimentation assay showed that the recombinant PhADF1 protein produced in Escherichia coli binds to F-actin at pH7. 0 and preferentially depolymerizes it at pH8.0. Gene tree analysis indicates that the plant ADF family can be grouped into four classes, and PhADFs are included in class I. Southern blot analyses revealed that one or two copies of PhADF genes are present in petunia genome, and several other related isoforms also exist. Northern blot analyses indicated that PhADF1 and PhADF2 are closely related and abundantly expressed in every plant organ except pollen. In addition, they are highly accumulated in mature vegetative tissue (petal, leaf, and stem). Our results indicate that the transcription of petunia ADF genes is differentially regulated by developmental signals.