Using genetic hybridization analysis, electrophoretic karyotyping and PCR-RFLP of the MET2 gene, we found that the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum is associated with certain types of wines produced in the Val de Loire, Sauternes, and Jurancon regions. The average frequency of appearance of this yeast in the three regions of France was 41, 7 and 77%, respectively. In contrast, we did not find S. bayanus var. uvarum in red wines produced in the Bordeaux area. The results of this study, as well as the findings already reported on Tokay (Slovakia), Muscat (Crimea, Ukraine) and Amarone (Italy) wines, lead us to consider that distribution of S. bayanus var. uvarum yeast is connected with low temperature climatic conditions and/or wine technologies in which must fermentation is at least partially carried out at low temperatures (10-15 degrees C).