p38 MAP kinase and MKK-1 co-operate in the generation of GM-CSF from LPS-stimulated human monocytes by an NF-kappa B-independent mechanism

Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;131(6):1143-53. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0703684.


1. The extent to which the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and MAP kinase kinase (MKK)-1-signalling pathways regulate the expression of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from LPS-stimulated human monocytes has been investigated and compared to the well studied cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). 2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) evoked a concentration-dependent generation of GM-CSF from human monocytes. Temporally, this effect was preceded by an increase in GM-CSF mRNA transcripts and abolished by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. 3. LPS-induced GM-CSF release and mRNA expression were associated with a rapid and time-dependent activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK-1 and ERK-2. 4. The respective MKK-1 and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, PD 098059 and SB 203580, maximally suppressed LPS-induced GM-CSF generation by >90%, indicating that both of these signalling cascades co-operate in the generation of this cytokine. 5. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that LPS increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) : DNA binding. SN50, an inhibitor of NF-kappa B translocation, abolished LPS-induced NF-kappaB : DNA binding and the elaboration of TNFalpha, a cytokine known to be regulated by NF-kappaB in monocytes. In contrast, SN50 failed to affect the release of GM-CSF from the same monocyte cultures. 6. Collectively, these results suggest that the generation of GM-CSF by LPS-stimulated human monocytes is regulated in a co-operative fashion by p38 MAP kinase- and MKK-1-dependent signalling pathways independently of the activation of NF-kappa B.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / drug effects*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / pharmacology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / drug effects
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / drug effects*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / drug effects*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Monocytes / drug effects*
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / drug effects*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / drug effects*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Pyridines / pharmacology
  • RNA, Messenger / drug effects
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / drug effects*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Flavonoids
  • Imidazoles
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Pyridines
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • MAP2K1 protein, human
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • SB 203580
  • 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one