Benzene is an occupational hazard and environmental toxicant found in cigarette smoke, gasoline, and the chemical industry. The major health concern associated with benzene exposure is leukemia. The toxic effects of benzene are dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Previous research has identified CYP2E1 as the primary P450 isozyme responsible for benzene metabolism at low concentrations, whereas CYP2B1 is involved at higher concentrations. Our studies using microsomal preparations from human, mouse, and rat indicate that CYP2E1 is the P450 isozyme primarily responsible for benzene metabolism in lung and in liver. CYP2B isozymes have little involvement in benzene metabolism by either lung or liver. Our results also indicate that isozymes of the CYP2F subfamily may play a role in benzene metabolism by lung.