Effects of human papillomavirus-associated cells on human immunodeficiency virus gene expression

Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Dec;96(6):879-85. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(00)01057-7.


Objective: To examine the effects of soluble factors secreted by human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cells on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) expression.

Methods: Supernatants collected from cultured cervical biopsies and cervical cancer cell lines, and HPV-immortalized and normal keratinocytes were tested for the ability to induce HIV p24 production in two cell lines that contained latent HIV (the U1 monocytic line and the ACH-2 T cell line). Levels of HIV p24 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Culture supernatants were also assayed for the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 1 beta by ELISA.

Results: Supernatants from all epithelial cells tested upregulated HIV p24 expression in the U1 line but not in the ACH-2 cells. Only differentiated normal keratinocytes induced p24 production by ACH-2 cells. Neutralization of the cytokines, particularly interleukin 6, partially reduced the level of HIV-inducing activity in the culture supernatants. Additionally, cervical biopsies from HIV-infected women cultured in vitro also were able to induce HIV in U1 cells but not ACH-2 cells.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that HPV infection of the cervix might influence HIV pathogenesis by inducing the production of immune and inflammatory factors that enhance HIV expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cervix Uteri / pathology
  • Cervix Uteri / virology
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / physiology*
  • HIV / genetics*
  • HIV Core Protein p24 / genetics
  • Humans
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / genetics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Virus Infections / genetics
  • Tumor Virus Infections / virology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology*
  • Vaginal Smears
  • Virus Replication / genetics


  • Cytokines
  • HIV Core Protein p24