The Erlanger Endo-Trainer offers a large spectrum of training possibilities in endoscopic techniques using life-like biological specimens. We organised the first pilot study of interventions at the papilla and the bile duct under x-ray control. Specially prepared upper visceral porcine organ packages including the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts were implanted into the Endo-Trainer. Furthermore, small stones were introduced into the bile duct. The test study was carried out by a senior endoscopist assisted by his endoscopy nurse. The following steps could therefore be carried out as a structured team-training scheme: Introduction of the side-viewing endoscope and passage into the duodenum; identification and adjustment at the papilla; cannulation of the papilla; selective bile duct imaging with contrast application under x-ray vision; placement of a guidewire; papillotomy; stone extraction and finally placement of a plastic stent. The special value of this type of simulation is the fact that endoscopic techniques can be trained in the usual manner with real tissue-feeling using regular commercial instruments. Although there is general consent that individual practice on the patient cannot be completely replaced by simulator training, a suitable and realistic simulation model can be of great value, for initial steps prior to "real" patient contact as well as for refining techniques and tactics.