Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) has been implicated in axogenesis in cultured cells. To gain insight into the functions that MAP1B plays in vivo, we analyzed a strain of Map1B mutant mice generated by a gene trapping approach. Homozygous mice die on the first day after birth, probably due to a severe abnormal development of the nervous system. They present alterations in the structure of several brain regions. The normal Map1B gene yields different protein isoforms from alternatively spliced transcripts. The smaller isoforms were present in wild type, hetero-, and homozygous mice, but their expression was higher in the mutants than in the wild-type. Moreover, trace amounts of MAP1B protein were also observed in Map1B homozygous mutants, indicating an alternative splicing around the gene trap insertion. Thus, the Map1B gene trapped mutation reported in this work did not generated a null mutant, but a mouse with a drastic deficiency in MAP1B expression. Analyses of these mice indicate the presence of several neural defects and suggest the participation of MAP1B in neuronal migration.