A key emergent property of the primary visual cortex (V1) is the orientation selectivity of its neurons. The extent to which adult visual cortical neurons can exhibit changes in orientation selectivity is unknown. Here we use single-unit recording and intrinsic signal imaging in V1 of adult cats to demonstrate systematic repulsive shifts in orientation preference following short-term exposure (adaptation) to one stimulus orientation. In contrast to the common view of adaptation as a passive process by which responses around the adapting orientation are reduced, we show that changes in orientation tuning also occur due to response increases at orientations away from the adapting stimulus. Adaptation-induced orientation plasticity is thus an active time-dependent process that involves network interactions and includes both response depression and enhancement.