Cell polyploidisation can be achieved by endoreduplication, which consists of one or several rounds of DNA synthesis in the absence of mitosis. As a consequence, chromosomes with 2n chromatids are produced without change in the chromosome number. Endoreduplication is the most common mode of polyploidisation in plants and can be found in many cell types, especially in those undergoing differentiation and expansion. Although accumulating data reveal that this process is developmentally regulated, it is still poorly understood in plants. At the molecular level, the increasing knowledge on plant cell cycle regulators allows the acquisition of new tools and clues to understand the basis of endoreduplication control and, in particular, the switch between cell proliferation and cell differentiation.