The plant Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia as a remedy for various fevers including malaria, and contains the well-established antimalarial compound artemisinin. In this study, a hybrid form of A. annua was successfully cultivated in Central Africa. The aerial parts of the plant contained 0.63-0.70% artemisinin per dry weight, and approximately 40% of this artemisinin could be extracted by simple tea preparation methods. Five malaria patients who were treated with A. annua tea showed a rapid disappearance of parasitaemia within 2-4 days. An additional trial with 48 malaria patients showed a disappearance of parasitaemia in 44 patients (92%) within 4 days. Both trials showed a marked improvement of symptoms. In our opinion, these results justify further examinations of the antimalarial effect of A. annua preparations.