The ACE I/D polymorphism and human physical performance

Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;11(10):416-20. doi: 10.1016/s1043-2760(00)00310-6.


The D allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism is associated with elevated levels of serum and tissue ACE, increased production of the vasopressor angiotensin II and a reduction in the half-life of the vasodilator bradykinin. Several cardiac and renal conditions appear to have a worse prognosis in subjects homozygous for the D allele, whereas the I allele has been associated with enhanced endurance performance in elite distance runners, rowers and mountaineers. The nature of the gene-environment interaction between ACE I/D polymorphisms and physical training, an overview of recent findings and a discussion of possible underlying mechanisms is the subject of this review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / genetics
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / genetics*
  • Physical Fitness / physiology*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*


  • Isoenzymes
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A