Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based profiling was performed on 138 strains representing all named Campylobacter species and subspecies. Profiles of 15/16 species comprised 6 to greater than 100 fragments and were subjected to numerical analysis. The mean similarity of 48 duplicate, outbreak and/or 'identical' strain profiles exceeded 94%. Species were clearly distinguished at the 17.90% similarity (S-) level in the dendrogram. Subspecies of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and biovars of Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter sputorum were distinguished at higher S-levels. All outbreak or 'genetically identical' strains of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, C. hyointestinalis and C. sputorum clustered at S-levels >92% and were distinguished from unrelated strains. Numerical analysis of AFLP profiles is useful for concurrent identification of taxonomic and epidemiological relationships among most Campylobacter species.