Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) activation in adipose tissue is known to regulate genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. However, the role of PPAR-gamma in muscle remains unclear. To examine the potential regulation of genes by PPAR-gamma in human skeletal muscle, we used semiquantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression of PPAR-gamma, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (mCPT1), fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), carnitine acylcarnitine transferase (CACT), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in freeze-dried muscle samples from 14 male subjects. These samples were dissected free of adipose and other tissue contamination, as confirmed by minimal or absent adipsin expression. Between individuals, the messenger ribonucleic acid concentration of PPAR-gamma varied up to 3-fold, whereas LPL varied up to 6.5-fold, mCPT1 13-fold, FABP 4-fold, CACT 4-fold, and GLUT4 up to 3-fold. The expression of LPL (r2 = 0.54; P = 0.003), mCPT1 (r2 = 0.42; P = 0.012), and FABP (r2 = 0.324; P = 0.034) all correlated significantly with PPAR-gamma expression in the same samples. No significant correlation was observed between the expression of CACT and PPAR-gamma or between GLUT4 and PPAR-gamma. These findings demonstrate a relationship between PPAR-gamma expression and the expression of other genes of lipid metabolism in muscle and support the hypothesis that PPAR-gamma activators such as the antidiabetic thiazolidinediones may regulate fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as in adipose tissue.