Long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) are becoming a major component of the health care delivery system. The management of infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in elderly patients in LTCFs is presenting new challenges to our current therapeutic armamentarium. Among the enteric bacilli, resistance to ceftazidime, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase-inhibitor combinations, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole present the foremost problems. Quinolone-resistant gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are increasing in frequency because of the widespread use of these agents in empirical treatment. Among the resistant gram-positive organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant pneumococci, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are the most feared pathogens. Education, antibiotic control measures, and fundamental epidemiological and scientific research are advocated as important preventive measures.