Background: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring maintenance dialysis in the Ile-de-France district (Paris area), and the characteristics of patients at start of dialysis.
Methods: This is a prospective epidemiological study with the cooperation of all dialysis facilities of the Ile-de-France district (population 10.7 million inhabitants as of March 1999). All consecutive ESRD patients who started dialysis from January 1 to December 31 1998, with demographic and clinical characteristics, and of the total number of patients on dialysis with their distribution according to dialysis modality were recorded.
Results: The total number of ESRD patients in 1998 was 1155, including 29 (2.5%) children aged < or =17 years and 86 (7.4%) returns to dialysis following kidney graft failure. Incidence of first-dialysed patients was 100 per million population (p.m.p.) and overall incidence, including returns from transplantation, was 108 p.m.p. The mean age of first-dialysed adult patients was 59.8+/-16.8 years, with 21.6% aged > or =75 years. Patients with vascular renal disease were 22.5% and those with diabetic nephropathy 20.6%. As a whole, 36.5% of patients were referred to the nephrologist < or =6 months before start of dialysis, including 32.2% referred < or =1 month before starting. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease was nearly twice as high in patients referred <6 months of starting dialysis than in those who benefited from effective nephrological care for >3 years in the predialysis period. By multivariate analysis, this difference persisted after adjustment for age and other confounding covariates. The total number of patients on maintenance dialysis increased from 417 to 433 p.m.p. (a yearly 3.8% increase) from the beginning to the end of 1998.
Conclusion: This recent epidemiological study in a large French urban area indicates an annual incidence of 100 new ESRD patients p. m.p., with a high proportion of older, vascular and diabetic patients. Overall incidence, including returns from transplantation, reached 108 p.m.p. Cardiovascular disease was significantly less frequent in patients who received nephrological care for > or =3 years prior to start of dialysis than in late referred patients, underlining the benefits of early nephrological management of renal patients.