The ADP-dependent (AMP-forming) glucokinases from the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus litoralis catalyze the phosphorylation of glucose using ADP as the essential phosphoryl group donor. Both enzymes were purified to homogeneity and characterized with regard to each other. The enzymes had similar enzymological properties as to substrate specificity, coenzyme specificity, optimum pH, and thermostability. However, a difference was observed in the subunit composition; while the T. litoralis enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 52 kDa, the P. furiosus enzyme has a molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consists of two subunits with identical molecular masses of 47 kDa. The genes encoding these enzymes were cloned and sequenced. The gene for the P. furiosus enzyme contains an open reading frame for 455 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51,265, and that for the T. litoralis enzyme contains an open reading frame for 467 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53,621. About 59% similarity in amino acid sequence was observed between these two enzymes, whereas they did not show similarity with any ATP-dependent kinases that have been reported so far. In addition, two phosphate binding domains, and adenosine and glucose binding motifs commonly conserved in the eukaryotic hexokinase family were not observed.