Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Dec;10(4):452-63. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.10.4.452.


Creatine monohydrate supplementation has been shown to enhance high-intensity exercise performance in some but not all studies. Part of the controversy surrounding the ergogenic effect(s) of creatine monohydrate supplementation may relate to design issues that result in low statistical power. A further question that remains unresolved in the creatine literature is whether or not males and females respond in a similar manner to supplementation. We studied the effect of creatine supplementation upon high intensity exercise performance in 24 subjects (n = 12 males, n = 12 females). Creatine monohydrate (Cr; 5g, 4x/d 3 4d) and placebo (Pl; glucose polymer 3 4d) were provided using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (7 week washout). Outcome measures included: 2 3 30-s anaerobic cycle test, with plasma lactate pre- and post-test; dorsi-flexor: maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 2-min fatigue test, and electrically stimulated peak and tetanic torque; isokinetic knee extension torque and 1-min ischemic handgrip strength. Significant main effects of Cr treatment included: increased peak and relative peak anaerobic cycling power ( 3.7%; p <. 05), dorsi-flexion MVC torque ( 6.6%; p <.05), and increased lactate ( 20.8%; p <.05) with no gender specific responses. We concluded that short-term Cr supplementation can increase indices of high-intensity exercise performance for both males and females.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Creatine / administration & dosage*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise Test
  • Female
  • Hand Strength
  • Humans
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Physical Exertion / drug effects*
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors


  • Lactic Acid
  • Creatine