The compatibility of ion-pair reversed-phase column liquid chromatography and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) for separation and identification of anionic dyes has been investigated, with emphasis on the at-line coupling via a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate. SERR spectra using silver sols were recorded both for aqueous solutions and for samples deposited on aluminum oxide and silica TLC plates at 514.5- and 457.9-nm laser excitation. For some dyes, the shorter wavelength was needed to diminish the fluorescence background. For aqueous solutions and for samples deposited on aluminum oxide, clear SERR spectra were obtained upon addition of poly(L-lysine); for the silica plates, the addition of nitric acid was required. Upon drying the plates, the SERRS signals decreased in intensity; simply adding a drop of water could largely restore them. At-line coupling of LC and SERRS was successfully achieved when using silica, but not aluminum oxide, plates. The application of a gradient, a high water content, and the presence of ion-pair reagents needed for the separation did not adversely affect the deposition and the recording of SERR spectra. The identification limits were 10-20 ng of deposited material, depending on the dye selected, which corresponded to injected concentrations of 5-10 microg mL(-1).