To study the ovarian function of the Order Scandentia, the localization of inhibin and steroidogenic enzymes (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase and aromatase) in the ovaries of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) and northern smooth-tailed tree shrew (Dendrogale murina) was immunohistochemically analysed. As in the results reported for other mammals, inhibin alpha-chain was localized in the follicular epithelium of secondary or Graafian follicles in the two species. The localization of aromatase in the ovary of these two species, however, was different. In the common tree shrew, the aromatase was localized in the thecal cells, whilst in other mammals it is localized in the granulosa cells. These results indicate that in the ovary of the common tree shrew, the oestradiol may be synthesized in the thecal cells.