Aortic stiffening and left ventricular hypertrophy are believed to be major determinants for the prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic stiffness remains to be determined. Echocardiographically determined parameters and aortic distensibility determined with cine magnetic resonance were evaluated in 21 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Hemodynamic variables measured at the beginning of the study were compared with those measured after 28 months. Aortic distensibility determined at the descending aorta was markedly lower in patients undergoing hemodialysis than in healthy control subjects. During the follow-up period, blood pressure and hemodynamic variables, including left ventricular mass index, remained unchanged. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that aortic distensibility independently contributed to the left ventricular mass index and to the change in left ventricular mass index between baseline and after 28 months. Baseline left ventricular mass index negatively correlated to aortic distensibility (r = -0.74, p < 0.0001), and the changes in left ventricular mass index positively correlated to aortic distensibility (r = 0.52, p < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that aortic distensibility at the descending aorta is a predictable marker for the development or regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Therefore, patients with end-stage renal disease must be treated with appropriate drugs to improve aortic distensibility.