Cladophialophora bantiana (Cladosporium trichoides) is a black fungus recorded rarely as a cause of brain abscess. Only 21 cases have been reported in the literature world-wide. We describe the first case seen in Brazil. A 30 year old, previously healthy female, HIV negative, came to the hospital with a clinical diagnosis of brain tumor. After biopsy and culture of the lesion, it was found that she had an abscess due to Cladosporium trichoides. During the following five months, the patient underwent three more surgical brain interventions to totally remove the area of compromised tissue. In addition to surgery, amphotericin B, both intravenously and intrathecally, was used followed by itraconazole orally, without success. Six months after the first surgical intervention, the patient died. The worldwide experience with diagnosis and treatment of patients with this diseases is reviewed.