Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor scintigraphy could allow prediction of response to GRP receptor-targeted treatment options, early non-invasive diagnosis and in vivo prognostic stratification of GRP receptor-positive tumours. This study reports on the imaging characteristics and efficacy for tumour detection of technetium-99m RP527, a 99mTc chelated targeting peptide derived from bombesin, which binds GRP receptors with high affinity. Ten patients (four men and six women, mean age 56.4 years) either suffering from metastasised prostate (n, number of patients = 4) or breast carcinoma (n=1) or presenting with a clinical diagnosis highly suggestive for breast carcinoma (n=5) were included in the study. In the latter five patients, 99mTc-RP527 scintigraphy was performed prior to diagnostic, e.g. biopsy, and staging examinations. Final diagnosis in these patients was breast carcinoma in all five. In all patients, whole-body planar scans and tomographic images were acquired 1 h and 5-6 h post injection of 555 MBq 99mTc-RP527 and tumour to normal tissue (T/N) ratios determined. 99mTc-RP527 showed specific uptake in four of six breast and one of four prostate carcinomas. T/N ratios derived from planar and tomographic images increased significantly (P<0.01) from 1.65 (SD 1.53) and 3.35 (SD 3.04) to 2.58 (SD 1.26) and 7.23 (SD 8.46), respectively. T/N ratios derived from tomographic images were consistently higher (P<0.01). The data presented suggest that 99mTc-RP527 results in specific tumour localisation and exhibits good imaging characteristics with a good T/N ratio that may be further enhanced by single-photon emission tomography.