Production of experimental malignant pleural effusions is dependent on invasion of the pleura and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor by human lung cancer cells

Am J Pathol. 2000 Dec;157(6):1893-903. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64828-6.


We determined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (PE) associated with advanced stage of human, non-small-cell lung cancer. Intravenous injection of human PC14 and PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells into nude mice yielded numerous lung lesions. PC14 and PC14PE6 lung lesions invaded the pleura and produced PE containing a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-localized vascular hyperpermeability. Lung lesions produced by H226 cells were confined to the lung parenchyma with no PE. The level of expression of VEGF mRNA and protein by the cell lines directly correlated with extent of PE formation. Transfection of PC14PE6 cells with antisense VEGF165 gene did not inhibit invasion into the pleural space but reduced PE formation. H226 cells transfected with either sense VEGF 165 or sense VEGF 121 genes induced localized vascular hyperpermeability and produced PE only after direct implantation into the thoracic cavity. The production of PE was thus associated with the ability of tumor cells to invade the pleura, a property associated with expression of high levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and low levels of TIMP-2. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the production of malignant PE requires tumor cells to invade the pleura and express high levels of VEGF/VPF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / complications
  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Animals
  • Capillary Permeability
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / complications
  • Lung Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Lymphokines / genetics
  • Lymphokines / metabolism*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics
  • Pleura / pathology*
  • Pleural Effusion / etiology*
  • Pleural Effusion / physiopathology
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Cytokines
  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Lymphokines
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases