Aotus monkeys received 4 doses of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 region II vaccine as plasmid DNA (Dv-Dv) or recombinant protein in adjuvant (Pv-Pv) or as 3 doses of DNA and 1 dose of protein (Dv-Pv). After 3 doses, antibody titers were approximately 10(4) in DNA-immunized monkeys and 10(6) in protein-immunized monkeys. A fourth dose did not significantly boost antibody responses in the Dv-Dv only or Pv-Pv only groups, but titers were boosted to approximately 10(6) in monkeys in the Dv-Pv group. Four weeks after the last immunization, the animals were challenged with 10(4) P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes. Peak levels of parasitemia were lower in the 16 monkeys that received region II-containing plasmids or proteins than in the 16 controls (geometric mean: 194,178 and 410,110 parasites/microL, respectively; P=.013, Student's t test). Three of 4 monkeys in the Dv-Pv group did not require treatment. These data demonstrate that immunization with EBA-175 region II induces a significant antiparasite effect in vivo.