(-)-Hydroxycitrate (HCA) is an active ingredient that is extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit, Garcinia cambogia, which is available as an herbal supplement and is used to lose weight. In this study, the acute and chronic effects of HCA on energy metabolism were examined in male Std ddY mice. Mice were placed into metabolic chambers and administered 10 mg HCA or water (control) orally. Serum free fatty acid levels were significantly higher 100 min after administration in the HCA group, but the respiratory exchange ratio was not different from that in the control group. The concentration of glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was higher in the HCA group 16 h after administration, and in a separate study, the maximum swimming time until fatigue was slightly longer (P: = 0. 21) than that in the control group on d 1. The difference was significant on d 3 after 3 d of HCA or water administration. Other mice were administered 10 mg HCA or water orally twice a day for 25 d. On d 26, they were placed into metabolic chambers after administration and allowed to rest for 1 h, followed by 1 h of running at 15 m/min. Respiratory gas was monitored. The respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in the HCA group during both resting and exercising conditions. These results suggest that chronic administration of HCA promotes lipid oxidation and spares carbohydrate utilization in mice at rest and during running.