Smad1 belongs to a family of receptor-activated proteins which mediate signals from TGF-beta superfamily ligands, including TGF-beta and BMPs. Although much is known about the biochemistry of Smad1 signal transduction, the role of Smad1 in vivo is still unclear. Here we present the first description of the genomic structure of the mouse Smad1 gene and the characterization of its expression pattern in adult mouse tissues by immunohistochemistry. The Smad1 gene contains 7 exons and spans >42 kb of genomic DNA. Its coding region is contained within 6 exons and all introns, except intron 1, follow the GT/AG rule. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Smad1 is widely expressed in adult mouse tissues, with a varying degree of nuclear localization in different cell types, suggesting a regulated function for this protein. This study assigns all of the exon-intron boundaries of the mouse Smad1 gene and provides the basis for assessing the functional significance of this gene using targeted gene manipulation in the mouse.