Many patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) do not produce sputum spontaneously or are smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We prospectively compared the yield of sputum induction (SI) and fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the diagnosis of PTB in a region with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifty seven percent (143 of 251) of patients had diagnoses of PTB, of whom 17% (25 of 143) were HIV seropositive. There were no significant differences in the yields of AFB smears or cultures whether obtained via SI or BAL. Among 207 HIV-seronegative patients, the AFB smear and mycobacterial culture results from specimens obtained by SI and BAL were in agreement in 97% (202 of 207) (kappa test = 0.92) and 90% (186 of 207) (kappa test = 0.78), respectively. Among HIV-seropositive patients the agreements between AFB smear and culture results for SI and BAL specimens were 98% (43 of 44) (kappa test = 0.93) and 86% (38 of 44) (kappa test = 0.69), respectively. We conclude that SI is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic yield and high agreement with the results of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of PTB in both HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive patients.