Intestinal T lymphocytes activated by antigen are suspected to play a key role in enterogenic spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Therefore, we aimed to identify and functionally characterize T-cell clones that are coexpanded in the intestinal mucosa and the synovium. Colon, peripheral blood, and synovium of a patient with enterogenic SpA were screened for clonal T-cell expansions by TCRB-CDR3 length analysis and sequencing. T-cell clones expanded in vivo were isolated from archived synovial cells by targeted T-cell cloning and characterized for phenotype, cytokine production, and antigen specificity. The synovial TCRBV18(+) T-cell repertoire of the patient was dominated by 2 CD8(+) T-cell clones using related CDR3. Both clones were expanded throughout the colon and were present in the peripheral blood. Upon in vitro stimulation with PDB/ionomycin, they showed predominantly interferon gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 but also tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10 production and did not specifically lyse autologous T-cell blasts, B-cell lines, or other autologous or allogeneic target or CD1d-transfected cells. These findings strongly suggest that T lymphocytes activated by antigen in the intestinal mucosa contribute to joint inflammation in enterogenic SpA by recognition of antigens specific for the inflamed synovium.