Role of vasoactive factors in the pathogenesis of early changes in diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2000 Nov-Dec;16(6):393-407. doi: 10.1002/1520-7560(0000)9999:9999<::aid-dmrr157>;2-g.


Several interactive and mutually perpetuating abnormal biochemical pathways, such as protein kinase C (PKC) activation, augmented polyol pathway, and non-enzymatic glycation, may be activated as a result of sustained hyperglycemia in diabetes. These abnormal pathways may in turn influence several vasoactive factors, which are probably instrumental in the production of functional and morphological changes in the retina in diabetes. The vasoactive factors such as endothelins, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factors, etc., are of importance in mediating functional and structural alterations in early diabetic retinopathy. Intricate and interactive regulatory mechanism(s) among these factors may control ultimate availability of these molecules to produce biologically significant effects. A better understanding of these factors and their interactions would aid the development of adjuvant therapies for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / pathology
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / physiopathology*
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / physiology*
  • Endothelins / physiology*
  • Growth Substances / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lymphokines / physiology*
  • Nitric Oxide / physiology*
  • Retina / pathology
  • Retina / physiopathology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Endothelins
  • Growth Substances
  • Lymphokines
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Nitric Oxide